“And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas.”
This verse in the book of Genesis seems to suggest the continents used to be gathered together into one land mass. Since the “waters under the heaven [were] gathered unto one place,” it makes sense the land would also be gathered into “one place.”
In the mid 1900s, Alfred Wegener proposed that anciently all the continents were part of one mega-continent known as Pangaea. While it seems common sense to us now that the continents were once together, Wegener’s theory was largely rejected in his day. However, recent discoveries have provided evidence in support of his theory.
Geological evidence for Pangaea
1) Continental fit
If you took away the Atlantic Ocean gap, the continents look like they’d fit together like pieces of a puzzle.
2) Fossil patterns
Scientists have found fossils of identical species on distant continents, which makes sense if those continents were once together (see image above).
3) Mineral dating
Rocks that are equally old are found juxtaposed across the ocean. For example, some rocks in Northeastern South America match up very nicely in age with rocks in Northwestern Africa.
4) Mountain chains
There is a continuation of mountain chains across oceans. This supports the idea that mountains are formed when continental plates and/or ocean plates collide.
5) Equatorial glacial deposits
Debris left by ancient southern glaciers that now reside within the equator provide evidence that the continents have moved from their original positions.
6) Coral reefs in Antarctica
Some land that was once in the tropics has gradually moved toward the south pole.
7) Magnetic pole shifts
The magnetic north pole changes position constantly. This provides support that the inside of the Earth is constantly changing.
8 ) Magnetic orientation of rocks
If the continental plates were put together, rocks from the same time period would line up magnetically.
9) Ocean floor age
The closer you get to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the younger the ocean floor is. This shows that volcanoes on the ridge are creating new land, and pushing the older land farther apart.
“The characteristic of scientific progress is our knowing that we did not know.”
Personal Notes: I remember taking Physical Science at BYU and learning about geology. Our teacher talked about Genesis 10:25, that says “in [Peleg's] days was the earth divided.” He pointed out that the division referred to was most likely a division of languages or people, not of continents.